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Understanding CPT Code 97110 in Physical Therapy


CPT code 97110 is crucial for physical therapists to accurately document and bill for therapeutic exercises that improve strength, mobility, and physical function. This code is essential for ensuring services are billed correctly, which helps maximize reimbursement and compliance with healthcare regulations.

This CPT code covers therapeutic exercises designed to develop strength, range of motion, and flexibility. These exercises are important for patient care in physical therapy, recovery from injuries, and managing chronic conditions. 

Effective use of CPT code 97110 not only supports therapeutic goals but also conforms to billing practices essential for the financial health of therapy practices.

Comprehensive Guide to CPT Code 97110

This CPT code is a fundamental aspect of physical therapy billing, representing therapeutic exercises that focus on improving strength, endurance, range of motion, and flexibility.

What Do Physical Therapy CPT Codes Cover?

These CPT codes are designed for therapeutic exercises directly involved in developing and restoring physical functions. That can include exercises aimed at improving circulation, strengthening muscles, and enhancing the overall mobility of patients. Providers need to document the specifics of these exercises, including the duration and the physical areas targeted, to support the necessity of the therapy and justify the billing.

  • Exercise Types: Involves a range of motion exercises, strengthening, stretching, and endurance training.
  • Documentation Requirements: Detailed recording of the exercise type, duration, and frequency.
  • Patient Outcomes: Focus on how these exercises are effective for patient rehabilitation goals.

Best Practices for Utilizing CPT Code for Physical Therapy

In the effectiveness and compliance of using CPT code 97110, physical therapists should adhere to several best practices. These ensure the therapeutic exercises meet clinical standards and align with billing requirements to facilitate smooth claims processing and reimbursement.

  • Consistent Documentation: Record each session’s details, including the exercises performed, their intensity, and duration.
  • Individualized Treatment Plans: Customized exercises are specific needs and goals of each patient, which support the medical necessity of the therapy.
  • Regular Training: Stay updated on the latest physical therapy techniques and changes in CPT code usage to ensure compliance and effective patient care.

Other Essential Physical Therapy CPT Codes

The critical CPT codes are closely related to CPT code 97110, expanding practitioners’ understanding of codes such as 97161 and 97164. These codes are pivotal for comprehensive billing in physical therapy and enhance the scope of patient care documentation.

Key CPT Codes Related to 97110

Understanding the landscape of physical therapy CPT codes complementing CPT code 97110 enriches billing accuracy and compliance. These codes include:

CPT Code Description Importance in Treatment and Billing
97112 Neuromuscular re-education Often paired with 97110 for comprehensive neuromuscular treatment.
97530 Therapeutic activities Involves complex patient interactions and dynamic movements.
97001 PT evaluation Essential for establishing a patient care plan, precedes 97110 use.
Stressed by medical billing? Call us now, and let our specialists create a customized billing strategy for your practice.

Understanding CPT code 97161

CPT code 97161 pertains to a physical therapy evaluation with low complexity. It is essential for initial patient assessments and helps define the scope and intensity of therapeutic exercises that may include 97110 in subsequent sessions.

  • Assessment Focus: Includes history review, a systems review, and limited clinical tests.
  • Documentation Requirements: Clear documentation of clinical decision-making, patient history, and assessment findings.
  • Billing Tips: Ensure the evaluation’s complexity level aligns with the documented patient needs and treatment goals.

Understanding 97164 CPT code

CPT code 97164 is used for re-evaluating an established physical therapy plan of care, vital for adjusting ongoing treatments including those involving CPT code 97110. It is crucial when there is a significant change in the patient’s condition or response to the current treatment.

  • Re-evaluation Components: Assessment of progress towards current goals, modification of goals, or plan as needed.
  • Necessity for Re-evaluation: Triggered by clinical changes, lack of expected progress, or significant improvement.
  • Documentation Strategy: Detailed noting of the reasons for re-evaluation, changes in patient status, and adjusted treatment plans.

Impact of Accurate CPT Coding on Healthcare Practice

Accurate CPT coding is crucial in optimizing billing processes and ensuring compliance within healthcare practices. 

Enhancing Billing Efficiency

CPT coding directly influences the efficiency of billing cycles, impacting revenue cycles within healthcare practices.

  • Streamlining Claims Processing: Proper use of CPT codes, like CPT code 97110, speeds up the claims process, reducing delays and denials from insurers.
  • Optimizing Reimbursement Rates: Accurate coding ensures that services are billed at the correct rate, maximizing potential reimbursements without overcharging.
  • Reducing Billing Errors: Precision in coding minimizes errors leading to fewer audits and financial penalties.

Legal and Compliance Aspects

Accurate CPT coding ensures adherence to healthcare regulations and standards, safeguarding practices against legal and compliance risks.

  • Compliance with Regulations: Accurate coding is essential for meeting healthcare regulations, including those enforced by CMS and private insurers.
  • Avoiding Legal Pitfalls: Correct CPT coding helps avoid legal challenges related to fraud services provided.
  • Documentation and Reporting Accuracy: Ensures patient’s records accurately reflect the services rendered, supporting medical necessity and compliance with treatment protocols.
Stressed by medical billing? Call us now, and let our specialists create a customized billing strategy for your practice.


In conclusion, precise understanding and application of CPT code 97110, with associated physical therapy CPT codes, are crucial for the success and regulatory compliance of physical therapy practices. These codes enable accurate billing and help maximize reimbursements. Also, ensure the documentation of patients accurately. By following best practices in CPT coding, healthcare providers can improve patient outcomes and maintain the financial health of their practices while complying with legal and regulatory requirements. 


CPT code 97110 is used for billing therapeutic exercises to enhance strength, mobility, and flexibility.

Accurate CPT coding ensures proper billing, maximizes reimbursement and helps meet compliance standards.

Related CPT codes include 97164 for neuromuscular re-education and 97161 for therapeutic activities.

CPT code 97161 is used for low-complexity evaluations, setting the foundation for tailored treatment plans.

CPT code 97164 is crucial for re-evaluating treatment plans, especially when adjusting ongoing therapies.

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